The Italian – Turkish War was a war between Italy and the Ottoman Empire. The war began on September 29, 1911, when Italy invaded the area now known as Libya, then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The Italian – Turkish War formally ended with the (First) Treaty of Lausanne (also known as the Treaty of Ouchy) signed in Lausanne, Switzerland on October 18, 1912.
Ouchy Hotel du Chateau – Site of the treaty of peace negotiations and signing in the guerre italo-turque.
Below is the full text of the Treaty of Ouchy – (First) Treaty of Lausanne, in type, as opposed to the reproduction of book pages usually found on the web (the internet). This English language version of the Treaty of Peace Between Italy and Turkey is translated from published French versions and from the Italian version published in the Gazetta Ufficiale del Regno D’ Italia, October 19, 1912.
Web links have been embedded in the text to enable those that are not familiar with the names, titles, places, and references contained in the document to be more aware of the situation described by this peace treaty.
TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN ITALY AND TURKEY
Signed at Lausanne, October 18, 1912
His Majesty the King of Italy and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, equally animated by the desire to bring to an end the state of war existing between the two countries, have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:
Mr. Pietro Bertolini, Grand-Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy, Grand-officer of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, deputy of Parliament,
Mr. Guido Fusinato, Grand-Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy, Grand-Officer of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, deputy of Parliament, Counselor of State,
Mr. Giuseppe Volpi, Commander of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus and of the Crown of Italy.
His Excellency Mehemmed Naby Bey, Grand-Cordon of the Imperial Order of Osmanie, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans,
His Excellency Roumboyoglou Fahreddin Bey, Grand-Officer of the Imperial Order of Medjidie, Commander of the Imperial Order of Osmanie, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans,
Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers which were found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:
The two Governments pledge themselves to make, immediately after the signature of the present Treaty, the necessary arrangements for the immediate and simultaneous cessation of hostilities. Special commissioners will be sent to the spot to assure the execution of the aforesaid arrangements.
The two Governments pledge themselves respectively to give immediately after the signature of the present Treaty orders for the recall of their officers, their troops, as well as of their civil functionaries, the Ottoman Government from the Tripolitana and Cyrenaica and the Italian Government from the islands which it occupied in the Aegean Sea.
The effective evacuation of the aforesaid islands by the Italian officers, troops, and civil functionaries will take place immediately after the evacuation of the Tripolitana and Cyrenaica by the Ottoman officers, troops, and civil functionaries.
The prisoners of war and the hostages will be exchanged with the shortest possible delay.
The two Governments pledge themselves to grant a full and complete amnesty, the Royal Government to the inhabitants of the Tripolitana and Cyrenaica, and the Imperial Government to the inhabitants of the Isles of the Aegean Sea which are subject to the Ottoman suzerainty and have taken part in the hostilities or have compromised themselves in them, with the exception of crimes of common law. In consequence no individual of any class or condition whatsoever will be liable to be pursued or molested as regards his person or his property or the exercise of his rights by reason of his military or political acts or of the opinions he expressed during the hostilities. Persons detained or deported on this account will be immediately set at liberty.
All the treaties, conventions, and engagements of every sort, kind and nature, concluded and in force between the two High Contracting Parties before the declaration of war will be immediately set in force, and the two Governments will be placed, the one as regards the other, as well as their respective subjects, in the identical situation in which they were before the hostilities.
Italy pledges herself to conclude with Turkey, at the same time as she renews her treaties of commerce with the other Powers, a treaty of commerce on the basis of public European law, that is to say, she consents to leave to Turkey all her economic independence and the right of acting in matters of commerce and customs like all the European Powers and without being bound by the capitulations and other acts from this day. It is thoroughly understood that the said treaty of commerce will be put in force only in so far as the treaties of commerce concluded by the Sublime Porte with the other Powers on the same basis are put in force.
In addition, Italy consents to an increase from 11% to 15% of the advalorem customs duties in Turkey as well as to the creation of new monopolies or the levying of additional taxes of consumption upon the five following commercial articles: petrole, cigarette paper, matches, alcohol, playing cards. All that, provided equal treatment is applied simultaneously and without distinction to the importations from the other countries.
In so far as the importation of articles forming the object of a monopoly is concerned, the administration of these monopolies is obliged to secure articles of Italian manufacture according to the percentage established on the basis of the annual importations of these same articles, provided that the prices offered for the delivery of the articles of monopoly conform to the market situation at the time of the purchase, taking into consideration the quality of the goods and the average prices which have been current during the three years preceding that of the declaration of war.
It is, moreover, agreed that if Turkey, instead of establishing new monopolies upon the said five articles, should decide to levy extra taxes of consumption on them, these extra taxes shall be imposed in the same measure upon similar products of Turkey and of all other nations.
The Italian Government pledges itself to suppress the Italian post offices in use in the Ottoman Empire at the same time as the other states having post offices in Turkey suppress theirs.
The Sublime Porte proposing to open, in a European conference or otherwise with the Great Powers interested, negotiations with a view to stopping the capitulary system in Turkey and replacing it by the system of international law, Italy, recognizing the reasonableness of these intentions of the Sublime Porte, declares herself from henceforth willing to lend her full and sincere support to this end.
The Ottoman Government wishing to mark her satisfaction for the good and loyal services which have been rendered her by the Italian subjects employed in administration whom she was forced to dismiss from the outbreak of hostilities, declares itself ready to re-establish them in the situation they had left.
Compensation will be paid them for the months passed out of employment, and this interruption of service will be without prejudice to those of the employes who will have a right to a retiring pension. Further, the Ottoman Government pledges itself to use its good offices in approaching the institutions with which it is in touch (Public Debt, Railway Companies, Banks, etc.) in order that there may be the same treatment for Italian subjects who were in their service and were in analogous positions.
The Italian Government pledges itself to pay over annually to the treasury of the Ottoman Public Debt to the account of the Imperial Government a sum corresponding to the average of the sums which in each of the three years preceding the declaration of war have been allocated for the use of the Public Debt from the receipts of the two provinces.
The amount of the above-mentioned annuity will be determined by agreement by two commissioners named, one by the Royal Government, the other by the Imperial Government. In case of disagreement the decision will be referred to a board of arbitration composed of the above-mentioned commissioners and a chief arbitrator named by agreement between the two Parties. If the agreement cannot be secured in this way, each Party will appoint a different Power and the choice of the chief arbitrator will be made by agreement by the Powers thus designated.
The Royal Government, as well as the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, by the intermediary of the Imperial Government will have the right of demanding the substitution for the above-mentioned annuity of the payment of the corresponding sum capitalized at the rate of 4 per cent.
In reference to the preceding paragraph, the Royal Government now acknowledges that the annuity cannot be less than two million Italian lire and that it is ready to pay to the administration of the public debt the corresponding capitalized sum as soon as the demand for it is presented.
The present treaty shall enter into force on the day of its signature.
In faith of which the plenipotentiaries have signed the present treaty and affixed their seals thereto.
Lausanne, Oct. 18, 1912.
Signed: Pietro Bertoltni.
Signed: Guido Fusinato.
Signed: Giuseppe Volpi.
Signed: Mehemmed Nabt.
Signed: Roumboyoglou Fahreddin.
Les délégations turques et italiennes à Lausanne – (seated at table, left to right:) Pietro Bertolini, Mehemmed Naby Bey, Guido Fusinato, Roumboyoglou Fahreddin, and Giuseppe Volpi.