Mapping Lasita, Kansas

April 30th, 2011

Mapping Lasita, Kansas

~ Old maps are such a cool way to get oriented to the new reality.

Note:  There is another post that says more about Lasita, Kansas and starts from the beginning.

This “Lasita Project” has me going.  It has me going deeper and deeper into the past in order to find the present.  It’s good to look at a hundred or so years of history all at one time.  It can show you where the hopes and dreams of a different generation or two have led.  In my case the present search involves Lasita (Kansas), the “old” family home on my mother’s side, on her mother’s side.

For many, the American Dream meant to go to America and become a farmer.  In Europe the old family farms got smaller and smaller with each passing generation as families got larger and larger and the farms (and lands) were divided between the “each of them”.  It’s an old saw.  It has happened many times all over the world and is still happening still.

When the farms get so small that you (one) cannot even eat off them it’s maybe time to move (on).  That’s the story of Johan Backlund.  He left what was left of the ancient farm in Sweden and left his brothers and left the hunger on the farm and moved to the big city, meaning a big city in Sweden.  He built ships for awhile, got hurt, then got the urge to go on a bigger ship to “America”.  By “America” he was considering Canada too, it was a new continent he was after, not necessarily a new nation.

He rambled a bit after getting here.  He stayed north (near Canada) and tried things in Indiana and Illinois and then one day he heard of Kansas.  There was good land there it was said.  “Unto a good land” is another book about Kansas worth reading.

When he was younger the family changed the families names from the “son of son” Swedish system to a “family name”, choosing “Backlund”.  Lund meant “land”.  The “Back” land was the “Black” land of deep forest loam, sometimes often almost black in color.  With enough of this special fertile land one could probably almost live forever.

So, the new family name was a link to the Swedish past and a program for the future.  Johan probably had no choice about becoming a farmer.  It was his name.  When he came to Kansas he changed his Swedish name “Johan” to “John”.  He never did a legal filing, in those days names were more based on usage.  He used “John” when he filed for a homestead of 160 acres of the closest thing he could find in Kansas to the deep black forest loam.  Of course what he found was not forest loam, but Kansas sod; it was good land, but not farm land that would last forever. In time the fertility of the land would not even ‘feed’ a family (considering the price of clothes, electricity, transportation, feed, education, furniture and fuel).

In the end, as the frequent misspelling of his name shows, he was at heart a “Blackland farmer“.

So Kansas is now sometimes more about ‘collective farms’, called “corporate farms” that have vast acreages that are dependent upon federal subsidies paid to modern ‘farmers’ to grow things and not to grow things.   The names of these new farmers are not Backlund, not Lund; as the maps show, things have changed some around Lasita.

SOIL MAP – KANSAS – RILEY COUNTY SHEET – 1906 (Fancy Creek / Lasita – map portion)

U.S. Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Soils – Milton Whitney, Chief
Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station – J.T. Williard, Director.
Soils surveyed by William T. Carter Jr. and H.C. Smith – 1906
Field Operations, Bureau of Soils – 1906.    Published by Julius Bien & Co. Lithographers, New York

The Map shows the route of the narrow gauge Leavenworth, Kansas, and Western Railroad.   The NE Quarter of Section 26 (as indicated), immediately northwest of Lasita, is the Backlund Farm.  The soil on the farm and in most of the area around Lasita is “Os” – Oswego silt loam.

Eight square miles of the Lasita District – Atlas of 1910

In this 1910 Map of the Lasita, Kansas area the property owned by Johan “John” Backlund is clearly stated to be “John Blacklund”.   At least the acreage is right.  The 300 acres owned by Michael Senn is also shown, less the acreage of the town of Lasita.  The L,K & W Railroad runs through the Lasita townsite almost north to south, then up to the Chaffee’s land and cuts a diagonal across the Backlund Farm property on its way to Green (Kansas) and eventually Clay Center (Kansas) where the Chautauquas have been held.

The small square indicating the buildings of the Backlund Farm are not quite accurate.  What is accurate is the fact that the entrance to the farm was (and is, as can be seen on Google Maps) from the north.  All the roads surrounding the farm leading into Lasita were still dirt in 1953 (as I recall)

A sketch map of Lasita, Kansas (the town) by Hemme

May 11, 2011:
This is an update to the original post on “Mapping Lasita”.  The older maps, like the one above, mislead me.  It does not show the “Lasita” on the west side of Lasita Road.  Fortunately I have just found a sketch map done by Hemme Backlund Martin (my grandmother) that clarifies things.  It is here:

The Lasita Cemetery is at the Northwest Corner of the intersection of Senn Road (east-west) and Lasita Road (north-south).   The original Frank Lund House (on the east side of Lasita Road faced Lasita Road at the north end of the town.  The Senn Store (Frank Lund Store) was further south on the right side (east side) of Lasita Road; the door of the store faced south.  This places the Shell Mill across Senn Road to the north, on the southwest side of the tracks.  Finally, the Lasita School was on the SW corner of Lasita and Senn Roads, south of the cemetery.

I must say, a simple map, and everything now makes sense.  I’ll have to make appropriate notes under the building pictures.

Google Maps shows the original Backlund Farm

The Backlund Farm is here (on Google).  The original “road in” can be plainly seen.  It leads to the “old pond”, south and west of which was the original Victorian style farmhouse.  The original soddy from the 1870’s was near the pond and against the side of a small hill.  There was a barn, a windmill and an outbuilding or two, and an outhouse.  The pictures of the farm must wait for another day.

Hemme Backlund Map of Riley County in 1907 

This map of Riley County was drawn by Hemme Backlund in 1907, when she was either 19 or 20.  As she clearly states it was copied from an earlier map, dated 1898.  Think of this map as her I-Pad, or Google Map function; she could carry it wherever she might go.  The other maps of the time were mostly Atlases, bound (expensive) and too big to carry.  Emphasis is on the railroads, because that’s the way people traveled.


Click on these maps and other images to enlarge.  Sometimes another click will enlarge the maps or images further.  This map shows Riley County as it was symbolized by the “G.A. OGLE” Co. circa 1910.  The name (in the lower left corner of the map) is so similar to “GOOGLE” that maybe “GAOGLE” was where the name really came from.   If not, it is an amazing coincidence.

Anyway, Someone, probably Hemme has written many of the School District numbers (in pencil) near many of the schools.  The numbers are old, they were changed.  However, most all of the schools of the time in Riley County appear on this map.

Another interesting item of note is the General Ogden Monument shown on the Fort Riley (Diminished) Reservation (see the center of the screen).   It’s hard to find on the modern GOOGLE (not GAOGLE) Map, but it is here.  Further south, as the Maltese Cross symbol shows is the perceived Center of the United States.  The center of the United States is at the convergence of the Republican and Smokey Hill Rivers.   From this point, the river flows east under the name of Kaw, or Kansas River (the Kaw River).

Of course this “center” wasn’t including Alaska and Hawaii, which were not States in 1910.  I guess the military surveyors assumed (however) that Arizona and New Mexico would get in.

And one more point about the above map.  It seems that the BLUE VALLEY RAILROAD, that ran along the Big Blue River has disappeared and now is a part of the Union Pacific (Railroad).

MAP OF Northeastern KANSAS – 1910

This Map shows the communities of Kansas and the railroads one took in 1910 to get to them.  Hemme Backlund visited Topeka, went to school in Emporia, went to Kansas City and back; she did all these trips entirely by train.  Go ahead, you figure out the different railroads and change of stations to get from Lasita, Kansas to Emporia, Kansas and back.  It was all great fun, except when the rivers flooded and the tracks that followed them were washed out.

[“Mapping Lasita, Kansas” Post written on April 30, 2011 @ 19:53  ZLT / GMT / Zulu / UTC]

Lasita, Kansas

April 26th, 2011

Lasita, Kansas

~ It’s been a long time since I’ve heard from Manhattan (meaning Kansas), but – Oh Well!

Note:  There is another post that says more about Lasita, Kansas and has pictures of the buildings.

I don’t get a lot of E-Mails.  Keeping the “Comments forum” closed seems to send a message.  When I do get messages they are usually from old friends or distant relatives, often both distant in time and space (though otherwise close).

At other times someone, or some group, imaginary or otherwise, gets through the vetting process – I respond, they end up never writing back.  It’s a waste of time, but “Oh, well.”  So in a new E-Mail I get a message from a “JT Van Gilder”, on his father’s side he is obviously Dutch, not “German ‘Dutch'”, about which I have posted.   Looking at the web there seems to be some history there.  Looking more closely there seemed to be “too much history”.  But this nice Facebook page saved the day, or at least the credibility of the E-Mail that I received.

History is like that.  Everyone goes through life.  Mistakes are made.  Records come and go.  Some things are remembered while others are forgotten, everyone moves on.  And that is the point of Mr. JT Van Gilder’s email.  It is about Lasita (a city in Kansas once); OK maybe “city” is saying too much, maybe “community” says more, and says it better.

There isn’t much of Lasita (Kansas) left now.   Corporate America agriculture has taken Lasita away and apparently all the buildings with it, and most memories of the peoples lives.   My grandmother, Hemme Backlund, grew up in and near Lasita.  It was her families home.  Her father homesteaded a farm of 160 acres.  Around them were their neighbors and their friends.  I suspect that somewhere, someplace there is a Van Gilder connection.  History is like that.  Generation after generation it keeps coming back.

So I guess I am the oldest living keeper of the history of Lasita (Kansas).  It’s hard to believe right now.  When I was young “Lasita” was a legend, somewhere where my mother and my grandmother talked about in hushed tones.  It was an ancient sacred place.  It was where of all places available in all of America my great-grandfather had chosen to live, and his wife did not object.  She never ran away.  She is buried in Lasita.  Or maybe now the word is “was”.  Is the cemetery still there?  The Lasita Cemetery has not been relocated to Leonardville, Kansas as the linked site suggests.  It is still at the NW corner of Senn Road and Lasita Road – Riley County, Kansas.

Until I looked on the Google map today, Lasita for me was still a living place.  I could see the Senn Store, picture Mr. Senn still there.  I have the picture somewhere.  My favorite picture in the whole world is the picture of the Lasita School.  Hemme and her brothers and sisters went there.  Hemme’s father built it.  I think that I have posted about how someone died, an accident; construction sites can be dangerous.  Now everything is gone, except I was in Lasita once, when it was still a town, or almost a town, and not just two roads in the middle of nowhere.   Yes, Mr. JT Van Gilder, I do have the records, as far as I know that the records still exist.

I too, will share them with you, and with the world to the degree that the world still cares about a bit of history, a place, a sense of place that in the world today is hard to find.  Thank you for reminding me about Lasita.  Thank you for the history paper that you seem intent to write.  Lasita perhaps will live for one more day, someone else will remember, the ghosts will walk again.  Maybe one last time the train whistle will blow over the farms of Lasita.  That is the way it was in Lasita, and in America – back then.

Pictures, photographs, information and documents regarding Lasita, Kansas will follow:

The Photographs in this post are designated to fall into the Qala Bist Blue collection.   Factual information from other publications is presented pursuant to “educational purposes and fair use”.  The narratives that I write regarding Lasita and its history are Copyrighted as a part of Qala Bist (.com), however permission is granted to use the enclosed information regarding Lasita, Kansas provided that the following credit line is included and contained in the paper or electronic based reproduction (of materials):  “Material courtesy of Donald Clayton, the Hemme Martin collection, and Qala

This of course brings up the issue of “the material”.  Some things are in books, some on shelves, some packed away.  Other things, like maps and diagrams and photographs and letters, are packed away in tubs (dust proof, water proof, mice proof, plastic tubs).  Sometimes the information is organized and filed (in folders).  Despite my best intentions, this is not always the case.  It takes a lot of work to separate “Afghanistan from Korea”, “Lasita from San Diego”, and still have the Yellowstone stuff, or Trinity stuff fairly close at hand.  It is the problem of the historian – organization, correlations, what to keep and what to file and when and what to let go of.

That is why the web is wonderful.  On the web (basically – for now), everything is safe.  The challenge is to get as much up on the web as is possible.  I’ll keep trying, one photograph, one Qala Bist post at a time.  “JT”, I hope I finish before the deadline for your paper.  Sincerely yours.  Email (and updates) to follow.

Michael Senn founded Lasita, Kansas.  His life story is here.

The “community” of Lasita, Kansas was as much about life in the Bluestem Prairie as it was located in any of the buildings of the “town” of Lasita itself.  In no real sense was Lasita ever really a town, it was the center of the surrounding community, composed of farms.  The community provided for a focus, but even that focus was distributed and disparate.

Depending where one lived Green, Kansas might have had a greater appeal.  Not everyone near Lasita even took the local railroad.  The mainline to the west was often easier.  The general store was important, but people also bought things in Green, Randolph, even Manhattan.  On the farms most “settlers” had their own wide selection of food.  There was never even a restaurant or hotel in Lasita.  People had get-togethers and picnics.  People stayed in peoples houses, as guests; schoolteachers were put up to board if they lived more than walking distance away from their school.   Actually “Lasita” was well-named, it was THE site.  It was more of a landmark, an idea.

Johan “John” Backlund, Hemme’s father moved to the high ground just above Lasita in 1870, 10 years before Mr. Senn arrived.   He could have claimed the land of Lasita, he didn’t.  Lasita itself was too low and too flat.  The early days on the Kansas prairie were probably best captured in the book Sod and Stubble by John Ise (published in 1936).  To understand Kansas and the settlers the book is a “must read”.

Hemme knew Alma Ise from when they both attended Kansas State Normal School in Emporia.  Alma Ise is an older sister of John Ise (the author) she is “Laura” in the book.  She married Mr. Lindley in 1909.  It was the Kansas connection thing I wrote about, about Forrest Warren in San Diego (San Diego Union) here.  Anyway, the signature and the page appear below.

I have been trying for awhile to find the list of the Ise children to confirm this page my father, Fred W. Clayton, wrote about the Felix X. Gygax connection.  Here is the list.  And below is the page from the same 1936 copy of Sod and Stubble.  Fred and the web say “Estelle”, the book says “Stella”.  Anyway, she was born on August 22, 1887 – the same month and year that Hemme Martin (my grandmother) was born.

Senn Store – Lasita, Kansas – Interior showing merchandise and Frank Lund – Circa 1906.

Photographer – Alfin Backlund.  From the Hemme Backlund Martin Collection.  Copyright waived by Donald Clayton (photograph owner) pursuant to Qala Bist Blue.   Frank Lund took over day-to-day store operations at the Senn Store after the owner of the store, Michael Senn retired in 1905.

Senn Store – Lasita, Kansas – Interior showing merchandise and Frank Lund – Circa 1906.

Photographer – Alfin Backlund.  From the Hemme Backlund Martin Collection.  Copyright waived by Donald Clayton (photograph owner) pursuant to Qala Bist Blue.   Frank Lund took over day-to-day store operations at the Senn Store after the owner of the store, Michael Senn retired in 1905.  This view is looking toward the back of the store from very near the front door of the store.  Additional inventory appears to have been added since the first photograph was taken.

Michael Senn journalism article – Lasita, Kansas – by Hemme Backlund – Correspondence Institute of America (CIA) – Circa 1907.

Hemme Backlund (Martin), age 19, interviewed Michael Senn and wrote the following for Lesson J 9003 for the Correspondence Institute of America course on journalism.

Michael Senn was born in Switzerland about sixty years ago.  Because of the wonderful opportunities rumored from the New World many emigrated thither.  It was said that in America one could succeed if he knew a trade.  So Michael’s father had him taught basketry before he allowed him to venture to this new country.  At the age of thirteen with his two younger brothers he reached America.  The brothers were sent to school and Michael studied in the evenings.  When the Civil War began Mr. Senn, then a young man, joined a Kansas regiment.  He carried a gun through the entire war.  Later he settled with his wife in the booming town of Enterprise, Kansas where he invested in real estate and started a general merchandise store in partnership with his brother-in-law.  He also for awhile had interests in a Furniture factory.  He was nominated as Representative to the State Legislature and then elected Senator from his district.  He fought earnestly and successfully for the Oleomargarine law.  Moving to Lasita, Kansas he bought a store there and acted as Postmaster for many years.  In 1905 he retired from active business and now lives in Lasita and takes pleasure in his books and his farm which adjoins the town.  He is socialistic but believes in gradual reform brought about by a change in public opinion and not by law.  He has written many articles and before his speech at the Clay Center Chautauqua last year was introduced as the “Tolstoy of our Community”.  His neighbors elected him Justice of the Peace of this township in 1904 and he still holds this office.

Document from the Hemme Backlund Martin Collection.  Copyright waived by Donald Clayton (document owner) pursuant to Qala Bist Blue.   Copy of original Michael Senn article in HNB’s own handwriting.  The reference to the Clay Center Chautauqua (July 27, 1906 through August 5, 1906).  Hemme attended the Chautauqua with her (older) sister Hattie Backlund.  Hemme’s birthday is August 5th, she turned 19 on that date in 1906.

Photograph of the 1906 Clay Center Chautauqua – Clay Center, Kansas – by Alfin Backlund

Photographer – Alfin Backlund.  From the Hemme Backlund Martin Collection.  Copyright waived by Donald Clayton (photograph owner) pursuant to Qala Bist Blue

Photograph of Frank Lund – (near) Lasita, Kansas – probably by Alfin Backlund 

Photographer – (probably) Alfin Backlund.  From the Hemme Backlund Martin Collection.  Copyright waived by Donald Clayton (photograph owner) pursuant to Qala Bist Blue  In this picture of Frank J. Lund he is younger than he is in the above Senn Store photographs.  On the back is written “Mary Lee Caley”.  Since Mary Caley was born June 27, 1899, this photograph was probably taken about that time and was given to “Baby Mary” as a gift by Frank Lund.  (Caley, Mary Lee).

[“Lasita, Kansas” Post written on April 26, 2011 @ 21:58  ZLT / GMT / Zulu / UTC]

[“Lasita, Kansas” Post updated with Senn Store information on April 28, 2011 @ 04:56  ZLT / GMT / Zulu / UTC]

Lasita, Kansas – Buildings

April 26th, 2011

Lasita, Kansas – Photographs of Buildings

~ A few postcards from Lasita, Kansas, because I thought you should know.

The date of this postcard is August 10, 1908.  The photographer is Alfin Backlund.  The card was actually mailed in Bala, Kansas and sent to Green, Kansas.  Text is by “H”, which means by Hemme Backlund who had just turned 21 when this postal was sent.

Looking at the view of Lasita one can see the Lasita School (built by Hemme’s father – Johan “John” Backlund) on the left.  The home of John J. Lund is a house of two stories.  The grain elevator is slightly hidden behind John J. Lund’s General Merchandise store.  He purchased the store from Michael Senn after he retired.  Hemme still calls it “Senn’s Store” despite the clearly lettered new name on the front.  Ed Johnson’s house is to the right of the “Senn’s Store”.

The telephone poles for the Farmer’s Cooperative Telephone Exchange can be seen in the distance.  The roads are dirt, which is better than asphalt for the horses and buggies that most everyone used.

Photographer – Alfin Backlund.  From the Hemme Backlund Martin Collection.  Copyright waived by Donald Clayton (photograph owner) pursuant to Qala Bist Blue.   Note:  Alfin Backlund had a large box camera that he used for his photography.  He carried it on the train between Kansas City, Kansas (where he lived and worked) and Lasita when he visited the Backlund Farm.

Yes, it is August; so it must be time for the annual Chautauqua (in Clay Center).  In the “early” days of photography people developed their own photographs at home.  A popular product was the “penny postcard” photographic paper that you see here.  One side (the front) was the photograph one took, on the back side was the required writing expected by the Postal Service.

On August 19, 1908 Hemme sent a poorer copy of Alfin’s Postcard of Lasita to her older brother John Backlund.  She identifies the fact that Ed Johnson is the “village mechanic”.  She will be going (with her sister Hattie) to Kansas City, Kansas to visit her brother Alfin and his wife Maude on August 24th, returning August 27th.  This trip will be the first time in her life that Hemme has been out of the State of Kansas (even though it is only to the Missouri side of Kansas City).

Lasita, Kansas – Lasita School, Lund House, Shell Elevator and Frank J. Lund Store

In this photograph of Lasita, Kansas, probably taken in August of 1908, by Alfin Backlund, the clouds are overhead and the foreground mud suggests that it has been raining.  There is a piece of two-wheeled horse-drawn farm equipment between the photographer and the grain elevator in the background.  The horse is stationary, but hitched and ready to go.

This photograph is special in that the writing on the two sides of the grain elevator can be seen.  I did a blow-up with a resolution too high to be uploaded to the web by the pathetic Quest Communications “High-Speed” service available (but I guess 5.4 million pixels really is a lot).

Anyway, On the “side” of the building that you can see, it says, “Shell Mill & Grain Co.“.  To the left below that it says, “Cash for Grain.”  To the right it says, “Coal for Sale.”  Just below the lower roof are the words, “Use Shells Hi Patent Flour.”  To the left of those words, on the “back” of the building (meaning on the side away from the railroad tracks) the words are, “Flour  Feed  Coal“.  There is no mention of corn, but I believe that the “feed” mentioned was a silage based on corn and not just the smaller sacks of cracked corn chicken feed that of course almost every granary would sell.

Another remarkable feature of this photograph is how clearly one can see the very tall lightning rod on the top of the Lasita School.  It’s cloudy and it’s rainy, so that fact only makes sense.  Since Lasita really didn’t have a fire department, fire prevention was a priority.  It should be noted that the Shell Mill has not engaged in this important precaution.

Shell Mill & Grain Co. – Lasita, Kansas – showing the location of the railroad “through town”.

Another fine photograph by Alfin Backlund.  It seems to have been snowing.  It is probably December of 1908.  Alfin could have been staying warm by a fire, but he was out with his “big box camera” capturing this view of Lasita, Kansas just for you.

This picture shows “the other side of things” in Lasita.  Everything is reversed.  You can see the narrow gauge tracks through town and the Shell Mill & Grain Company siding.   Also there is a windmill near the tracks that we have not seen before, it is probably the source for the community water, no electric pumps back then.   At “the mill” you can see the distinctive metal stack reflective of coal heaters.  The brick chimneys at the Lund house suggests that they were more fond of wood.  At the school house you can see nothing, and the reason for that is that it was always cold.  The windows were good for light, but the insulation was very thin.  You needed a coat inside (in winter).  In another picture a little later I will show you.

Lasita School and Community Center Building – Lasita, Kansas

This photograph by Alfin was probably taken near the end of his life and in the declining years of the community and school.  Since Alfin died at Christmas in the influenza of 1918, this photograph was probably taken in 1914, perhaps a few years later.  Things obviously are reaching a state of disrepair.  The “old” photograph is faded, as the school too is fading.

Only the bottom floor was ever the “school”.  The top floor was built for use by the community, a “community center” as one might say today.  It was the “Lasita Meeting Hall”, a place for meetings, to hold elections, to have debates about all the areas needs, or wants, or grievances or desires.  Up high one could get a perspective on things, see the town, see across the typically Kansas world.  It helped in making the decisions.

The structure out front was for more basic needs.  It was used during recesses a lot.  It was useful in the evenings if meetings went on too long.  “Pashaw” on plumbing.  It’s like cars, and the telephone and electricity – “who needs them”.  The building is evidence that you can have both education and community without the modern frills.  But by 1914 the world was changing.   There was a war.  Men were enlisting.  Life in Lasita, Kansas would never be the same; and then came the influenza.

The building itself was built in 1892, by Johan “John” Backlund with a hired hand or two and help from several others.  One man was killed during the construction of the school, Mr. Flack.  He was blown off a scaffold during a brisk March wind.

John Backlund had progressive ideas about education.  They were quite advanced for his time, and the times, hence the size and stature of this otherwise “rural” school.  The heating was not so good.  In this picture you can see the single (small) chimney.  Maybe it is a reflection of the fact that people either had coats or didn’t need them.  He was born and young in northern Sweden, Kansas (it could be said) was always warm.

The school got old, languished, in 1937 the school board voted to not continue the school, it was boarded up and closed, but for a long time it survived.  I went inside the structure in June of 1953; I even went upstairs.  I touched this part of Hemme’s history.  In 1954 the building was torn down.

The Lasita School in 1897, when it was new

This photograph was probably one of the first taken by Alfin Backlund, who courtesy of a timer is seen in his own photograph (tallest person in the back row).  The year is probably 1897, in December obviously, you can see the snow.   The teacher for everyone pictured here is Cora Stump, seen on the far left, back row.  Hemme Backlund is the young girl on the far right.  No coat, but bravely not looking cold.  In the row behind her, to the left is her sister Hattie Backlund.  Emily Erickson is between her and Alfin.

We’ll have more names of the students pictured tomorrow.

[“Lasita, Kansas – Buildings” Post written on April 29, 2011 @ 04:27  ZLT / GMT / Zulu / UTC]

Hemme Naratte Backlund (Martin) – Death

August 10th, 1981

Hemme Naratte Backlund (Martin) – Death

~ The following is Family – Deaths information regarding Hemme Naratte Backlund (Martin), deceased on August 10, 1981.

____________________________________________________________________________ 1981 ____________________________________________________________________________ August:

1981.08.10 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————— [2] 37:121 – North America – United States of America – California – Santa Clara County
GilroyDriftwood Convalescent Hospital – 8170 Murray Avenue

DEATH of Hemme Naratte Backlund Martin (age 93) occurs at the Driftwood Convalescent Hospital in Gilroy, California on August 10th / 1981.


1981.08.00 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————— [2] 37:122 – North America – United States of America – California – San Mateo County
San Bruno
Golden Gate National Cemetery – 1300 Sneath Lane

GRAVESIDE REMEMBERANCES for Hemme Naratte Backlund (Martin) are observed at Grave #4448 in Row 21, Section ‘R’ in Golden Gate National Cemetery in San Bruno, California on August 00th / 1981.

This grave site is the grave site for Guy Dennis Martin, Hemme’s husband, a veteran of the World War I era.


—————————————————————————————————————————————————————— [2] 37:122 – North America – United States of America – California – San Mateo County
San Bruno
Golden Gate National Cemetery – 1300 Sneath Lane

BURIAL of Hemme Naratte Backlund (Martin) is at Grave #4448 in Row 21, Section ‘R’ in Golden Gate National Cemetery in San Bruno, California on August 00th / 1981.

This grave site is the grave site for Guy Dennis Martin, Hemme’s husband, a veteran of the World War I era.


2013.01.29 – 23:15.

Widespread earthquake damage

April 25th, 1954

____________________________________________________________________________ 1954

____________________________________________________________________________ April:

——————————————————————————————————————————————————————       [2] 37:121 – North America – United States of America – California – Santa Clara County
GilroyGilroy Advocate

Note:  The population of Gilroy, California in 1950 was 4,951 people.

Gilroy Advocate – Eighty-Seventh Year, No. 165 – April 26, 1954

Widespread earthquake damage
Plaster falls, windows break, in Sunday’s 1:33 p.m., 20 minute ‘quake

Widespread minor damage was reported from a rolling, 20-minute earthquake and a single aftershock that shook up a large area of Northern California.

The quake, at 1:33 p.m. PDT yesterday, centered in the GilroyHollisterWatsonville area.

Gilroy’s Damage
In Gilroy, bottles tumbled from store shelves, cracks appeared in downtown store walls and in residential area homes, several windows were broken and many others cracked.  A few chimneys in the residential area were reported damaged.

A check of downtown stores, groceries and city offices reveals extentive damage from the sharp earthquake.

An estimated $1000 damage in broken liquor and wine merchandize was reported this morning by McGuerns Grocery owner.

Blackburn’s Grocery reports $60 to $70 damage from broken bottles of liquors, while “only a few broken bottles” are reported by Mrs. Roger Stapleton, Gilroy Liquor Store, although she said, “my husband had the daylights shaken out of him and was dazed for a time after the ‘quake.”

Safeway Stores reports the most extensive grocery store damage, with an estimated $100 to $150 merchandise loss through broken bottles.  Richard Brooks, store manager, said the aisles were covered with merchandise fallen from the shelves and cases.  Brooks said the store was back to normal this morning, and that two men had cleaned up the mess in a couple of hours.

Fook Low, manager of the Victory Market, said the store sustained a loss of about $50 to $75 through breakage.  Town and Country Market manager, Alec Telfer, said his store lost only about $35 worth of merchandise.

Norman Goodrich, Sparkle Market, said his loss was very small – “about $15 worth of damage in breakage, and some $3 worth of cleanup work.  Bettancourt’s Market spokesman said the store lost about $100 in broken bottles.  No estimate was available from Purity Stores, but it was believed that the damage was not over $100.

City Hall Damaged
City Hall employees waded through fallen plaster and viewed huge cracks in the old building erected in 1905, just a year before the “big ‘quake” of 1906.  Judge Leon Thomas’ court was the hardest hit, with plaster lying all around the floor and hanging by a thread from great, spreading cracks from the walls and ceiling.

Nearly all second-floors in downtown buildings were damaged through cracks in walls, fallen plaster and rubble.

Crossbeams temporarily erected while remodeling goes on at Hall’s clothing store, were knocked out of plumb and work is going forward today to brace the front of the building.

Hotel Milias‘ rooms were damaged through cracks and falling plaster, and the elevator was reported damaged, but operating.

A movie was in progress at the time of the ‘quake, and the manager reports that the force of the earthquake broke the film.  He said the audience was quiet and the lights were turned on immediately while the break in the film was repaired.

Broken Window
Johnson’s Drug Store window was cracked, while a broken window was reported at the Toggery.  Pieces of plaster were thrown across the room at the E.E. Eustice Insurance Co. and several cracks in the wall appeared.

While little or no damage is reported from the various elementary schools in Gilroy, the high school reports minor damage from fallen plaster.

Residents report broken bric a brak, dishes and light pieces of furniture.  Cracks appeared in the walls and ceilings of homes, many of them new ones.

American Trust Buildings, Montogemery Ward and J.C. Penny Co. were among the hardest hit of the downtown buildings, all reporting extensive damage from cracks and falling plaster and cracked windows.

An insurance man said today that there is little earthquake insurance on homes or buildings here to cover the cost of repairs.

Watsonville Hard Hit
It cracked windows, plaster and walls, buckled floors, shattered chinmneys, broke pipes, tumbled merchandise from the shelves of stores and snapped a flagpole atop a Watsonville building.

“it shook the teeth out of everything,” said Police Sgt. J. S. Brandon of Watsonville.  “It sure caused a lot of excitement around here.”

Only One Injury
Only one injury was reported.  A 16-year-old girl was hurt slightly when a crowd of 500 persons attending a dog show in Watsonville panicked and rushed for the outdoors.

Seismologists said the tremblor registered 5 on a scale of 10.  The ‘quake came 48 years and one week to the day after the famed San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which measured 8.5.

The aftershocks followed at 2:25 p.m.  W. C. Marion, University of California seismologist, said an earthquake of such magnitude “continues to give surface waves for some time.”

Buildings Damaged
The ‘quake was also felt north of San Francisco at San Quentin Prison, where authorities said convicts remained calm, and to the east in the populous OaklandBerkeley area.

But it appeared to be most severely felt in the Watsonville area.

There a rope barricade was placed around a four-story building housing the Bank of America, where a crack opened in the granite facade.  The inside walls were laced with plaster cracks.  Five stores reported damage of $800 each.  A water main sprang a leak.  Power was off in neighboring communities.  Scores of chimneys toppled.

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Fiorovich said the jolt knocked them off their feet and moved every piece of furniture in their new ranch-type home six to eight inches.

Mirrors, pictures and everything on their walls were shaken off.  Plumbing fixtures were yanked from the walls.  They estimated it would cost $25,000 “to get our house in shape again.”

The ‘quake left a 50-foot crack in the Chittenden Pass highway nine miles east of Watsonville.  The ground was raised three inches on each side of the crack.  The highway was open to slow traffic.

San Francisco and Oakland police reported floods of calls, but damage was confined to cracked and broken plaster and swaying lights.

[Post originally written on March 8, 2011 @ 8:00 P.M. Mountain Time] updated: 2011.03.09






Road Trip & Map of Riley County (area) Kansas

July 4th, 1953


The following map is from a circa 1953 CO-OP SERVICE gas station map.  This map was used by Lloydine Clayton on her trip to and from the Backlund Farm in Lasita, Kansas in the summer of 1953.  Lloydine’s mother, Hemme Backlund Martin, was living on and running the farm at the time.  On this trip were “Martin” Clayton, Kenneth Clayton, and Donald Clayton (an ‘old’ age four).

The farm still had it’s windmill as the only source of running water.  The outhouse was still in operation; there was no indoor plumbing.  The telephone (that had a crank to call), barely worked.  During storms there was no electricity.  The surrounding roads were still dirt, and after a storm, were mud.  All that having been said; there was still a remarkable quality of life inherent to living on the Kansas prairie.

The big red line coming from the west through Clay Center is U.S. Route 24.  On the map it looks like an easy drive to Lasita, then turn left, go north, to the farm.  The problem was that north of Lasita the road was dirt and very bad.  The “best” entrance to the farm was from the north, through Green (Kansas).

Reading the above “line descriptions” included on the map sometimes helped.  The road north from Lasita was definitely “unimproved“.  “Two lines” for “Dirt Roads”?  Some maps can be so misleading.

The following road map of the “western” United States gives one an idea of what this summer trip entailed.  There were few freeways then, most travel was on paved two-lane roads, with an occasional extra lane to use to pass.

The trip began in Kings Beach at Lake Tahoe, which is on the California – Nevada line (north shore).   The family had been in Las Vegas, with a visit to Boulder Dam, earlier in the summer.  The “trip out” went northerly, through Salt Lake and then down to Denver.  We drove briefly to Kansas City at one point, from the farm.  Hemme rode with us going back.  It was a 1950 Ford Station wagon (woody), LOF glass.  We went west through southern Colorado, over to Zion (National Park), through Zion and the tunnel, then again north to Ely and “back west”.  Somebody should have marked the map.

A few weeks later I was in Los Angeles, my mother (Lloydine) and Hemme were in Long Beach (California).  Then back to Tahoe, through Los Altos and Sacramento just in time to move to Carson City (Nevada).  Every summer should be so much fun.

And (oh, yes) every mile was in a car without a car seat, booster seat, or seat belts.  No “restraining devices” whatsoever, no padded dash, no soft safety knobs or “child proof” locks on the easily opened rear doors.  No air bags, even.  And there was not one mile of divided highway.  I wonder how I survived (or maybe I don’t, but you do).

[“Map of Riley County (area) Kansas” Post written on May 11, 2011 @ 07:45 ZLT / GMT / Zulu / GMT / UTC]

Keep ‘Em Flying

October 19th, 1942

To:  Miss Evelyn Buckingham
King City, California
PO Box 231 (or 131)

Forwaded to:
59 North Monterey Street
Gilroy, California

Private Charles Nelson
408 School Squadron
Sheppard Field, Texas

Dearest Evelyn:
Just a card to let you know that I have not forgot you honey.  Have got to take my expert airplane mechanic next week and I sure hope I pass OK.  Don’t know yet how I got into the air corp but will figure it out when I have more time.  What is new in King City or is just same old story?  This place where I am at in Texas is a Reception Training Center for all air Corp men and is quite a large Camp.  Must close and be sure and write soon.
Love Charles.

This is a postcard with a bomber pictured on the face.  If you have any information about either Charles Nelson or Evelyn Buckingham please contact me by E-Mail to this site.  Was Charles Nelson from King City?

[Posted: 2009.06.10 / Wednesday – Keep ‘Em Flying]

Scioto Marsh Strike

June 20th, 1934

____________________________________________________________________________ 1934

____________________________________________________________________________ June:

1934.06.20 – 1934.08.28  (10 weeks)
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————       [2] 41:083 – North America – United States of America – Ohio – Hardin County
LimaScioto Marsh

SCIOTO MARSH ONION STRIKE – June 20, 1934 ———————————————————————————————————————————————–

This is an undated type-written letter from “Susan” (husband: “Elmer”) to Hemme Martin, living in San Diego, California.  The letter is about the Scioto onion workers strike, and about other issues seen relevant to Susan in the summer of 1934.

Information contained in {braces} are for clarification and are not part of the original type-written letter.

Dear Hemmie;

You will never know how many times I’ve started letters to you and been interrupted.  Life has been pretty complicated and your Susan has been dizzy more than once.

Elizabeth is still at Antioch but has decided to finish at Iowa if she does not get the co-operative job she wants – reporter on the Augusta Georgia Constitution.   She is finding the lot of a newspaper woman is not all roses as newspapers want men in preference to women.  (The New York Times has over 300 men, they say, in all positions and only one woman!)

Well, to make a long story short, in order to better fit herself for the job she stayed on at Yellow Springs {in Greene County, Ohio – home of Antioch College} all summer and reported for the Associated Press , the Springfield News and the Dayton News. Hasn’t quite made expenses but as they only pay two dollars a column, but the summer has been far from wasted.

Seeing as we could not get home we went down there to see her and had a wonderful visit with her.  The country around Yellow Springs is is wooded with hardwood trees and quite New England in atmosphere.  Then we made long drives to Columbus, Xenia, Dayton, Cincinnati and Kentucky.  Now Elmer is gnashing his teeth that we didn’t go to the Tennessee Valley Project.

You might be interested in Kay’s experience with the onion strikers.  She had met a socialist organizer and introduced him to us when we were there.  He asked her why she didn’t write up the Sciota Marsh strike.  She told him it was too far and she couldn’t afford the trip for what they would pay.  He suggested a friend with a car – which she hadn’t on tap, so he told her he was hitch-hiking there the next day and if she cared to go along she was welcome.

So she said, “Take it or leave it, mother, that’s the way we got there.”

He introduced her to the strike leader, himself, who took her home and she found his wife was only eight months older than she was.  Home was a tiny box although the wife had done wonders with cretonne and boxes of ruffles.  Then she interviewed the policemen, sheriff, judge, and finally millionaire owner of the marsh.

Conditions are really terrible there.  They have brought in ignorant Tennessee mountain whites and kept them by themselves.  Children of five and six years are paid three and four cents an hour for weeding on their knees in the muck which is so irritating that it causes boils and abscesses if the skin is in any way broken.

Heads of families get as low as $1.50 A WEEK.  for trespass  While the owner had the strike leader safe in jail when they proved he  was three feet away from the lot line, the poor Kentuckians were told they had to load up their goods and go.  They had no place to go but had loaded up when the leader got out and he ordered them back in their homes.  The police man threatened arrest and the leader said, “Go get your warrant, you know where I live.  I’ve never run away yet.”  Of course they couldn’t arrest him.

Then, finally, she interviewed Mr. Edwards {Allen P. Edwards, manager of the Scioto Land Co., age 72}.  Two armed guards were at the gates of the grounds and a man was cutting a great lawn with a power mower.  The atmosphere was a little tense as Mr. Edwards had a loaded revolver on the desk between them.  His wife comes in, quite bitter, and said, “What newspaper are YOU with.”

Kay said she paused and then replied gently, “You see I’m a student at Antioch College and taking a course in labor relations and wanted to study this from all sides including yours.”

Then instead of having time to get material she had a time to get away.

As she was leaving a socialist mass meeting was in progress and she sat in on that.  Finally the lawyers for each side presented their cases and she started back for Springfield.

When Mr. Barton, the Associated press man saw her he said, “thank God, I thought you’d get shot.”

When she finally reached home she was so unstrung it was 3 o’clock before she could get to sleep.

I say this generation has all the fun.  We never had such adventures as that, did we, Hemmie.

It has been the hottest summer on record and you know well enough that we have had a drought.  Now fall has dropped out of a clear sky and Suzanne is getting ready for school.

She has decided to work a year before going to college, the way Elizabeth did.  Don’t know but what that is the best plan, always provided the job can be found.

She is quite an adept at sewing and has made herself a lot of clever clothes at little expense.  Also she has taken over Elizabeth’s fall underthings and gets some fetching effects.

Now tell me what you are doing.  Do you garden?  I believe I enjoyed the horticulture building as much as any at the fair.  how is business now in San Diego?  What do the people think of N R A ?  It has been my observation that as a people we are very impatient.  The N R A to my notion is far from perfect but is a step in the right direction and probably will take years, if not centuries to come near a perfect society.  But the fickle public, now the worst danger is passed, lack the far view to hold on and work for the future.

Anyway, I am convinced Roosevelt is sincere and earnestly trying to do what is right.  On every hand I see the selfish ones willing to pull down the temple to save their petty interests – and not keen enough to realize all will perish with the destruction of the part.  But things move so swiftly now-a-days we forget reforms usually take generations.

Tell me about yourselves.  Is Lloydine to teach this year?

With love in chunks,
Ever yours,


Click on letter image to enlarge.

Click on April 12, 1988 newspaper article image to enlarge.

[Post originally written on March 9, 2011 @ 7:30 P.M. Mountain Time] updated: 2011.03.09





Tucked in my trundle

August 20th, 1931

Among Forty-Three Kisses
and Sixty-Seven Hugs.
But not Down and Out.
Thurs. 9 P.M. Aug. 20.

My Dollings!

My Heart is
Not Broken,
You have remembered me via Air Mail – Believe It or Not, I heard from you at 10 A.M. this Auntie Meriden.

Now I am tucked in my little trundle and all the other little Bears are also in hibernation.  Not Believe It Or.  (I have to sit up to keep the lamp company or it will go out.)

It was cloudy & cool today, rain Tues. night, and I have been actually getting fat since hot weather.  No one eats creme but me and I eat it on creamcheese all the time.  So no skeletons will haunt your house when I rattle home.

Yesterday Loyall and I painted most of the kitchen floor and I washed & boiled a big wash.  Today I ironed it all and painted the rest of the kitchen and the hall floor.  Besides I had two callers and cleaned and mopped the front room and got the usual three meals.

Rev. Wroten (husband of Audrey Iams, organist in M.E. church, Green, when Lloydine was there) who is now and was in 1905 – Methodist preacher in Green, called.  Mother could not remember him altho he calls three times a year, until she talked awhile and he told her his name, etc.  Then she was very glad to see him.  He came to ask if the Ladies Aid, 20 women, of Green could call on Mother’s birthday Sept. 14, and if I could stay till then.  I could not think it best for Mother so I am asking them not to come but send birthday cards if they wish.  I know Dr. Morton will tell them she has trouble with her heart and anything exciting is to be avoided.

As it happens there are five or six neighbors here who have planned to come over and Mrs. Chaffee is going to make a big cake with candles and cook the coffee and have charge.  It will be only chosen friends and Mother will like that much better.

You poor little lonesomes will be orphans cheerfully awhile longer, I know, when you think how Mother wants me to stay here as long as I possibly can be spared.  I really can‘t set a date but know now I can‘t leave on the 26th as I had hoped.  I may not get home until College opens but will come as soon as I can get away from here without too much shock to Mother (She had hoped I could stay always.)  I am now counting on about the 3d to leave here, but as I say, it may be later.  It won’t be sooner.  She often thinks I am her youngest sister (Aunt Emma)  She is wonderfully pleased with the painted floors.  The kitchen is oak (orange yellow) as it was before.  I shall give it another coat tomorrow.  We could walk on all of it tonight, and did.  I had to dry it daytimes because Mother walks at night and could not keep off of it without we watched carefully.  It dried in 4 1/2 hours.  It is 11 x 15 1/2 and took 1 1/3 qts. of paint as the boards are worn hollow.  My brush is 30 years old and the handle is so split by nails it was hard to hold together (but I would have used a rag if necessary!)  John used it last week in tar for roofing the hog-shed and I have no turpentine but used gasoline and kerosene to clean it somewhat.  (You have no idea of what life is, my birdies, till you’ve lived it on a farm!)  (And a 3 inch brush!)

Bow Wow.  Our dog Spot is the happiest dog and I wish you had him.  I had a notion to take him along (to get rid of him); but I guess he would not be happy there, and Grandma likes him here.  I have an old (15 or more yrs) Granny Cat who won’t come in but meets me for food twice daily and lives in the orchard.  She is stiff and creaky of joint but really pretty of face.  My personal bodyguard.  Then Mother has the young Mother Cat who can open screen doors herself, and Two White Kittens.   They all romp all over the house and the kittens sleep in the open windows or in a wash boiler in the hall.  They are as alike as two peas and 1/3 grown.  Play with a broom or spools or a piece of corn cob, by the hour.  Play hide and seek together and scrap in fun.  Mother calls them her “Playthings.”

Loyall has a pet rabbit that drinks milk and sits in the West window and EATS what he gives it in the woodshed between “sits”.  I feed Spot two quarts of sour milk daily and scraps.  I feed something all day long and I am ready to go to bed when I get a chance.  I sleep soundly until 5:30 or 6:00 too.  Thank goodness I don’t have to feed the chickens nor John’s piglets, hoglets, and other creatures of the barnyard, cow-yard, calves, horses, ad lib.

Our callers at sundown tonight were:  Mrs. Chaffee, daughter Marion Davis, two granddaughters, Diane and ?, and sister-in-law Laura Chaffee as chauffer.  We had a lovely visit, Marian especially asking to see Lloydine’s “Baby Book” which Mrs. C. had seen (when threshers were here.)  Marian was a Dietician & College graduate before she married and at Mayo’s a year.  Her hubby is a civil engineer employed by the State of Kansas.  Mrs. C. sent Mother a box of cling peaches yesterday, ripe and sweet, to eat.  She likes them.  Marian & Laura thot the “Book” wonderful.

Tuesday I attended the “Farm Bureau” which is extention study sponsored by Kansas State College at Manhattan, and supported by taxation, for farm woman & others all over the State.  It is a fine idea and carried on remarkably well by groups of women in each township (or two.)  The College supplies lessons and literature for every member each meeting and the programs are stipulated in detail.  They meet in members homes.  We studied foot comfort – Shoes and Hosiery, and learned everything a college could tell about selecting shoes, exercising the foot, how to walk, diseases, etc. etc. and kinds of hosiery – size, etc.  Then we had a lesson in Gesso (chess-o – German).  We each were given a picture, some celotex (or some wall board) and the proper kind of mucilage.  We mounted the picture leaving a narrow edge.  We applied floor wax to picture & rubbed to a soft finish.  The instructor gave the recipe for gesso and we copied it.  Then she mixed it as per recipe.  With kitchen knives we spread half the frame roughly.  With nut picks we designed.  Then finished the frame.  I used a toothpick, I had an etching of a church.  After half an hour we mixed shellac and bronze pwd. for gold, and blue pwd. also.  Applied as we wished with small brushes.  I put blue in hollows and gold in high spots.  I gave mine to Mother and she likes it and put it on the front room wall.  The etching is rough so pretty nice.  The gesso was whiting and turpentine and varnish I believe and cost 35 cents for about 15 pictures.  The wall board was 45 cents for a half a sq. yd. about.

It was great fun.  Talking to the women while they did it, especially.  Mrs. Dexter and Frances & Helen took me home in their Pontiac Six and Leonard Chaffee came for me in his Ford coupe.  Chaffees have a big car also but I don’t know what kind.

Now you see what makes my letters long.
Save the pictures:  My Dollings!

(Stick figures and x’s in a “Ham-Bones” expression and ‘explanation’ – simple graphic image).

Choke the veteran and comb the bushes for other victims.  If you can’t sell we will move in and keep two college girl room mates – one with a car.  I would just as soon if we can.  That is if we can raise the furniture.  Or if we can get along awhile longer just keep on trying to sell and someone will be buying before long I am sure.  It has been a bad time of year to show the place.  When College starts is better.  I am not surprised that market is slow now.  I would like to hug you both for writing so nicely to me, after 12 long days wait.  I know I am sometimes slow too but I try nobly to write often, don’t I?  I am very well & hope you are better.

Lovingly and Devotedly – Mama Scud.  xx oo

P.S.  Don’t fail to tell me what I asked about my package gift, gifts.  If you haven’t already.  I owe a letter.

Next HNB Letter – August 22, 1931.

[1931.08.20 / day – HNB to GDM & LDM in San Diego, California.]

Road is torn up

August 12th, 1931

Green, Thursd. the 12th?

Dear Lloydine,

Will scratch a note as Loyall is going to Green and the mail does not come past here as the road is torn up for a few days.

Do write & tell me if part of the Birthday gifts were from Grandma* so I can acknowledge them if they were.  She said hers would be a couple days late & there has not been any other pkg.

I & we are very well.  Grandma not so well mentally as a week ago.  It worries her herself very much as she says she always was so smart and could answer anything.

The weather is around 75 degrees this week.  It was 54 degrees at 6:30 A.M. Tuesday.  I put on more clothes.  It is wonderful to work and sleep.  I am already getting fat again (?).

Ludwig’s Ida Lund & Lorraine were over all yesterday P.M. and 15 mo. old boy baby.  There are 6 children now (Maxine & L. in High School at Green) The other 3 boys in Pleasant Hill**  L. remembers you she said.  She is 14.

Tomorrow I am going out for the first time.  To a neighborhood party at Osborne’s Springs near May Day*** for Curtis Lund who teaches in Minnesota Univ.  He is home for 10 days after Summer school (Frank’s boy)  It is a picnic.

Must close.  Love.
Your doting Mama Rosy.

P.S.  Send piece quilt scraps if you can.  Mother has not quite enough.  Send to me not her.  You needn’t write her if you haven’t unless you send it to me to read first.  Send pieces quick as she is sure I can get some more and the house is bare.

Next HNB Letter – August 20, 1931.

Note: *Hemme’s birthday was on August 5th, the implication (or fear) is that her mother may have sent her present to San Diego “automatically”.  ** Pleasant Hill is a nearby ‘community’ and school where Hemme taught when she was about nineteen.  ***May Day is another community and school where HNB taught, when she was 15 or 16 years old.

[1931.08.12 / Thursday – HNB to LDM in San Diego, California.]

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